Environmental and labour factors
Today there is no doubt that the reproductive system is significantly affected by environmental factors. Analysis of spermograms during the period from 1960 to 1985 show the deterioration of sperm quality by 20% during this period, and the indicators continue to deteriorate.
Heavy metals, lead, radiation, pesticides, household chemicals, cosmetics, food preservatives, and many other factors affect the development of germ cells in the early stages.
Smoking, drugs, medicine
Smoking affects both women’s and men’s fertility. Experiments have shown that for men nicotine and its derivatives block spermatogenesis, as well as reduce testicular size. In women, nicotine may alter the cervical epithelial structure and mucus secretion, resulting in disturbed sperm transport through the cervix.
Marijuana and its metabolite, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, inhibits LH and FSH secretion in the pituitary gland, which in turn leads to disruption of ovulation and luteal phase distortion. In men, marijuana reduces sperm quality and quantity.
Heroin and cocaine cause similar effects, as well as contribute to pelvic inflammatory disease and increase the risk of AIDS.
Chronic alcoholism can cause ovulation disorders. In men alcohol abuse negatively affects the production of testosterone and sperm concentration. Alcohol can reduce potency.
Regular physical activity is an essential part of a healthy lifestyle. However, too much is damaging. It is known that intense physical activity results in increased endorphin production causing FSH and LH synthesis disorders, followed by ovulatory dysfunction. Intense exercising worsens embryo implantation and increases the risk of spontaneous abortion in the first trimester.
Men have increased oligospermia risk, meaning a reduced amount of sperm in the ejaculate.
High or low weight
Low weight (body mass index (BMI) ≤ 19) is often associated with Anorexia nervosa or anorexia, and Bulimia nervosa or bulimia, that can cause hypothalamic amenorrhea and secondary infertility.
Obese women (BMI ≥ 29) can have chronic anovulation (no ovulation) and oligomenorrhoea (absent menstruation).
Men with too high or too low weight can have impaired sperm quality.
A normal BMI is 20-25. The body mass calculation formula is: weight (in kilograms) divided by height (in meters) squared.